The Department of Indology is engaged in the study of Indian civilization notably the ancient texts, history and religion of South India. The department has collected a large number of palm-leaf manuscripts and focuses its attention on the keys to classical India, namely, its religions, literature, languages (Sanskrit and Tamil) in order to better interpret and understand the foundations of modern India. It houses 8400 palm-leaf manuscript bundles containing Sanskrit and Tamil texts written in different scripts such as the Grantha, Tamil, Nandinagari and Telugu. These manuscripts have been registered as the Saiva Manuscripts of Pondicherry under the UNESCO Memory of the World. The major subjects dealt with in these palm-leaf manuscripts are the Saiva texts (the Agama-s, commentaries, manuals, etc.), devotional hymns, sthalapurana-s (legends of many Saiva holy places), texts on Siddha medicines in Tamil, etc.
Based on this manuscript collection the Indology department has been engaged for nearly six decades in critically editing and publishing the hitherto unpublished Saiva Agamas which are the fundamental textual corpus of Saiva Religion and Philosophy.
In the domain of Sanskrit grammar a research programme is devoted to develop a tool that will provide the scholars and researchers a general understanding of its field of application as well as the functioning of the complex system.