The Institute holds a strong tradition of multidisciplinary works on rural and environment issues and more specifically in the water field. The works on water underwent various development phasesfrom the 60’s and the study of the geography of irrigation (Adiceam, 1966). Databases have been developed on irrigation in south India within broader characterisation of the territory (Guilmotto, 2002). In the 2000’s, Olivia Aubriot analysed the implications of water policies (Mainly Tank Rehabilitation Program) on farmers’ practices and on social vulnerability, and compared the perception of various stakeholders on the water issue within the framework of sustainability of resource availability and social water management (Aubriot, 2013, Coste and Plumpidis, 2007).
The links between water security, land use, food production and environment protection are major issues today. Tension between food production and water protection is heightened by their interactions with other land development policies, including urbanization or industry development. Water and land uses change at a high pace around cities. At the same time, concerns for environment protection are increasing. In this context, there is a growing consensus among experts that groundwater resources will be confronted with an increased risk of depletion and pollution leading to more water scarcity and crisis. Water resources users, managers and planners are encouraged to develop strategies that also take future climate conditions into account. Yet the actors concerned may not consider climate change to be an urgent concern or even may not consider water scarcity as an urgent concern, because they face many other concerns such as land access or volatility of market. The challenge is bigger considering groundwater, since it is an unseen resource. Its hydro-geological dynamics are very complex. The stakes over groundwater use are economic, political, social and environmental. Groundwater offers individual farmers irrigation “on demand”. Water authorities lack means for management of groundwater because of the logistical problems of regulating a large number of small and dispersed users. The relations between actors involved in groundwater use and management, are limited or tense.
In the stream of the previous works, the programme on "Water and Territories" questions the evolution of water uses, institutions and policies at the local scale. It contributes to question integrated water management while investigating interactions and interfaces between water management and land development across jurisdictional and sectorial boundaries. It analyses the way that water and land issues are dealt and made visible by some artefacts and actors (users and their representatives, water professionals, scientists, etc.), with a specific attention towards groundwater. It studies how those concerned deal with the tensions between development and preservation and how water contributes to frame social inequalities.
The programme has strong connections with the urban dynamic program and MESH regarding the approach of science and technologies and with the Ecology Department regarding hydro-systems dynamics and eco-system services. It is oriented toward a wide interdisciplinary dialogue in collaboration also with partners from the Indo-French Network.
This programme brings together researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds, who employ different methods and approaches in their research: Intensive fieldwork, surveys, ethnographic methods of participant-observation, archival and documentary research, data collection and mapping.The programme relies on a solid data collection from previous works in South India.